Spotlight: Mental health treatment Option three

Background to major depressive disorder is Catatonia, delusions, destruction, disorder. Cognitive therapy which was established by cognitive behavioral therapy Beck et al. Antidepressants most commonly prescribe are ADMs.

Supports my perspective

I believe that the best treatment is a combination of antidepressants and cognitive therapy. While the patient is learning to cope mechanisms, and learning reframing techniques they still have the antidepressants to fall back on. There is a large amount of data that antidepressants treat moderate to severe depression. There is less data on cognitive therapy. The objective is to compare the efficacy is moderate to severe depression of antidepressant medications with cognitive therapy in a placebo controlled trial. The design is 16 weeks of cognitive therapy, 16 weeks of medication, and 8 weeks of pill placebo. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale provided continuous severity scores. At week 8 50% of the medication and 43% groups were superior to placebo. At the end of the study cognitive therapy was just as effective as medications. Some limitations are the quality of the therapists. The Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program Compared cognitive therapy and Antidepressants and no differenced were observed between cognitive therapy and antidepressant patients.

For Antidepressants

The National institute of mental health first recommends antidepressants as treatment for major depressive disorder.  Antidepressants alter the way the patient’s brain uses chemicals, so it is more efficient.  The national institute of health leans towards these methods because they have empirical evidence of neurotransmitters. The National institute for metal health also discusses cognitive therapy but as a second option to antidepressants.

The in the national revision of neuroscience 2008 by the National institute of health. Patients are advised to take ADM for at least six months to prevent relapse. In the patient does not experience symptoms then they are said to be cured if they do have symptoms then they are prescribed antidepressants indeterminately. These patients are deemed to have chronic depression. The efficiency of ADMs has been established in “thousands of placebos controlled clinical trials.” ADMs seem to be symptom suppressive instead of curative.  Lots of studies have shown that ADMs change the regulatory processes of the monoamine systems. Some negative effects are changes in sleeping, appetite sexual interest, and emotional response.

 

For cognitive therapy

In the United Kingdom’s National Health Service it is stated that cognitive therapy is as effective as antidepressants and therefore recommends cognitive therapy first. The antidepressants simply suppressed the side effects while the cognitive therapy got to the root of the problem and cure the problem. This study was carried out by the University of North Carolina International and Danube University. Then peer reviewed by the British medical journal.  Some limitations are this is only for moderate depression some doctors think that severe depression need to be treated with antidepressants first.

The Time magazine used a PET scan to see the brain function when researchers took scans. The participants who got well had increased insula this is a region that assesses or signals pain.  The pattern of insula levels predicted who would respond better to talk therapy or antidepressants. Those who responded best to talk therapy tended to have reduced insula compared to before.  Cognitive therapy teaches the patients what their thoughts mean and teaches them coping techniques therefore is advised.

References

@maiasz, M. S. (2013, June 17). Talk Therapy or Antidepressant? A Brain Scan Predicts Which Works Best for Your Depression. Retrieved December 07, 2017, from http://healthland.time.com/2013/06/17/talk-therapy-or-antidepressant-a-brain-scan-predicts-which-works-best-for-your-depression/

Depression. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2017, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml

DeRubeis, R. J., Siegle, G. J., & Hollon, S. D. (2008, October). Cognitive therapy vs. medications for depression: Treatment outcomes and neural mechanisms. Retrieved December 07, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2748674/

Http://ljournal.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/a-2017-023.pdf. (2017). doi:10.18411/a-2017-023

Talking therapy ‘as effective as antidepressants’ study finds. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2017, from https://www.nhs.uk/news/mental-health/talking-therapy-as-effective-as-antidepressants-study-finds/

 


Spotlight Blog 3: Option 1

We all face peer pressure in life. From small, meaningless things to big life decisions, we feel pressure from others to make a certain decision. A lot of times, the decision that others want you to make may not be the best one. For this reason, people need ways to deal with peer pressure. There are a lot of tips on the internet for dealing with peer pressure for all different kinds of audiences. For this post, I chose tips for college students, high school students, and athletes.

The first website I found was bestcollegereviews.org. Their first suggestion was to find a group of students that are focused on school. This is definitely a good first step. Surrounding yourself with the right people is very important. If your friends have the same values as you, it will go a long way towards not feeling peer pressure. Not everyone has the same values though, and even if you find a group of friends that are focused on school, stuff happens and you could still find yourself in an uncomfortable situation. Whether it is alcohol, drugs, sex, or something else, you might need a way to deal with pressure. The website says to say “thanks, but no thanks” to offers to do something you are not comfortable with. If that does not work, politely leave the situation. Finally, if neither of those work, get in contact with an adult you trust. I think these tips work in an ideal world and should usually work but sometimes people will keep pressuring you. In that situation, being all nice about it will not really work. You should be firm or even get aggressive. It might not be the best for your relationship with that person but it will get you out of that situation. Getting out of the situation is usually the best way to deal with peer pressure.

The next website was 6 tips for dealing with peer pressure in high school. It is by teens.drugabuse.gov. I read through it and it really was not tips. The article was more of excuses to give people so you avoid drinking or doing drugs. These are good to have but they’re nowhere near perfect. People will eventually pick up on the excuses and one of two things will happen. Either you get left alone or pressured more. In the case that you get left alone, then the excuses did their job. But sometimes people will keep pressuring you. The website does not really give any tips for if you find yourself in this situation. If that situation does come up, it is probably best to follow the tips from the first website and politely leave.

My final website was tips for dealing with peer pressure for athletes. Peer pressure for athletes is a little different than regular peer pressure. It comes more as pressure to perform. This pressure can affect your performance positively or negatively depending on how you handle it. Their first tip is to reframe the pressure. Instead of seeing it as negative, see it as positive. This change in perception is huge. It puts you in a much better mindset which will go a long way towards performing better. They then say to reduce external and internal sources of pressure. Parents, coaches, and for some athletes, reporters can put a lot of pressure on. The website suggests that you talk to them about it. A lot of times, your parents and coaches do not know they are putting pressure on you and talking to them and letting them know will get them to stop. You also put pressure on yourself to perform. The website advises that you let it push you to perform better. Their next tip is to know the symptoms of pressure. If you can recognize the pressure, you can start to deal with it. The first step is knowing it’s there. Their next tip is to use the pressure in your training. Knowing you have a big game coming up can push you to work harder to get ready. This can be really good for you but it could also spell disaster if you overdo it. You have to make sure you are using the other methods of dealing with pressure, not just training. So many athletes have gotten hurt from pushing themselves too far while getting ready for a big game. Their last tip was to make a checklist. If you have a specific process that works for you, it is best that you write it down and follow it. Pressure could make us do some things that could harm our chances of success, having a checklist can keep you from doing something out of the ordinary.


Medication or Psychotherapy? Why Not Both?

Although collectively many sources believe that the most effective way to treat a mental health condition is to use both medication and psychotherapy, a comparison of the argument of which is better shows a slight preference for psychotherapy over medication.

Those who support psychotherapy as treatment for a mental health condition suggest that the strengths of psychotherapy lie in its long-lasting results and variety of different treatments based off of the brain. Psychotherapy is able to have long-lasting effects on a person as he or she is regularly being taught coping skills that can be utilized outside of therapy sessions to help treat his or her mental conditions (Andersson). By teaching these coping skills, the person is learning how to identify the problem causing discomfort in his or her life and can take positive action in fixing those problems, replacing negative thoughts and influences in the process. This can also help in the case of a mental health condition getting better, but then worsening in the future, as the person will already have the knowledge and skill in improving their mental health to help solve the issue again (Andersson).

As well, another specific strength supports of psychotherapy suggest is that of variety. As psychotherapy focuses on different aspects of the brain that can be utilized to dig out problems and resolve them, it is suggested that psychotherapy therefore has more options and potential in solving mental health issues (American Psychiatric Association). What is suggested here is that people can save time from treatments that are ineffective with psychotherapy as their differing brain states can be more specifically tailored in s psychotherapy treatment than a medical treatment (American Psychiatric Association).

Supporters of psychotherapy are also quick to point out the many downsides to use medication as treatment for mental conditions. Psychotherapy is not considered to have any negative side effects and is not considered to be addictive, however many medications are (Andersson). In fact, many people fear taking medication as a solution to their mental condition due to a fear of reliance on the drug that the drug may change some aspect of their personality or identity (American Psychiatric Association). In a study where researchers did a meta–analysis of rates of treatment refusal and rates of drop out for psychotherapy and medication, the researchers found that out of the eight percent that refused treatment and the twenty-two percent that dropped out of treatment, the majority of those people were using medication and not psychotherapy (American Psychiatric Association).

However, this does not mean that medication as treatment for mental health conditions does not also have support. Many supporters of medication over psychotherapy suggest that the strengths of medication lie in its quicker, short term resolution of the problem and its tendency to cost less than psychotherapy. In regards to medication being a quicker and more short-term resolution to mental health conditions, this can be seen as a positive as some conditions may have severe symptoms that need to be dealt with immediately to ensure the safety of the person (Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies).

Similarly, medication that is often prescribed as treatment for mental health conditions is seen as less expensive. Not only is the medication prescribed once, meaning a person pays once instead of multiple times, such as for sessions in psychotherapy, but often times a person’s insurance will cover the cost of the medication while a person’s insurance may only cover a limited amount or none of psychotherapy (“Psychotherapy or Medication”). If the treatment is more affordable, this may affect the person’s willingness to stay with the treatment and how he or she perceives the treatment is going.

As for the reliability for these sources, I would say that they are fairly reliable as the Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders, the American Psychiatric Association, the World Psychiatric Association, and the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies are all official psychological organizations. The most reliable source can be considered the source from the World Psychiatric Association as that journal was included in the U.S. National Library of Medicine and was the only source that included their randomized sample, measurement process, and experimental process and design in order to ensure that the information they said could be generalized and reliable.

Yet, this is not to say that my opinions on medication and psychotherapy have changed. Although a comparison of support for psychotherapy and a support for medication shows that psychotherapy has slightly more support due to the downsides of medication, I still believe that the use of both is most effective in improving mental health conditions. Each mental health condition is unique; therefore some situations may cause for temporary medication to be used in order to effective act out psychotherapy, or vice versa. All options should be kept open, as long as the overall mental health conditions of individuals in the world are improving.

 

References:

American Psychiatric Association. “Treating Depression – Psychotherapy or Medication?” American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric Association, 17 Apr. 2017, http://www.psychiatry.org/news-room/apa-blogs/apa-blog/2017/04/treating-depression-psychotherapy-or-medication.

Andersson, Gerhard, Beekman, Aartjan T., Cuijpers, Pim, Koole, Sander L., Reynold, Charles F., Sijbrandij, Marit. “The Efficacy of Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy in Treating Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: a Meta-Analysis of Direct Comparisons.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 4 June 2013, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683266/.

Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. “Treament Opitions: CBT Or Medication?” Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, http://www.abct.org/Help/?m=mFindHelp&fa=CBT_Or_Medication.

“Psychotherapy or Medication – Which Should You Choose?” The Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders, The Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders, 6 Apr. 2017, http://www.centerforanxietydisorders.com/choose-psychotherapy-medication/.


Spotlight Blog 3 Mental Health Treatment

Psychotherapy can assist in treating Major Depressive Disorder by easing stress and giving the patient the chance to talk with a professional about their problems with depression on a deeper level. WebMD gives a great perspective on how Psychotherapy can assist someone struggling with depression cope and get better over time; especially when the depression is not very severe, but severe enough that therapy is found necessary. It discusses the ways therapy can give support and advice a person needs to benefit someone struggling with this common mental illness. Psychotherapy helps patients find ways to deal with medication symptoms, making it arguable compared to taking medication due to the fact that their is no side effects; it in fact helps cope with symptoms and help pull apart the deeper meaning of why a person might be struggling with depression.

The Cleveland Clinic also breaks down how Psychotherapy can assist those with depression by becoming more educated about problems in their lives as well as regaining control in their lives. It is hard for people with depression to feel like their life is in their hands. Lots of patients feel like they do not have the correct authority over what happens in life and the choices they make. It is important to have these skills that some can only gain by going to therapy and talking about their problems with trained professionals. This is especially necessary when the patient is unsure on how to go about solving these problems; as Psychotherapy can lead them down the right path mentally without medication that can also affect a person physically. The Cleveland Clinic also states that Psychotherapy attacks depression at the root of the problem and is not just a quick fix like medication is. It is also the treatment that has little relapse compared to medications, this way patients are less likely to relapse and fall back into their depression.

PSYCOM writer, Katie Hurley, breaks down how medication is used to treat depression through antidepressants. It is also initially stated that medication works best when used hand in hand with Psychotherapy to treat depression and is in fact most commonly used this way. There are several types of antidepressants that all come with different possible side effects and symptoms. Most antidepressants, especially for teens simply raise the amount of serotonin in the body, allowing a patient to feel in control and happy with their life again. Medications also give instant results that include mood and focus improvement as well as take away “depressive symptoms that cause suicidal thoughts” (Hurley 1). Although this statement is a bit confusing due to the fact that most risks of antidepressants are commonly suicide. There is also risks of sexual side effects, dizziness, and insomnia. These symptoms can last throughout the period of time the patient is taking the medication or could even last a possible lifetime. Although some of these risks are extreme, it is worth the uncertainty to patients with depression who need a quick and effective fix to get back to a normal life.

PubMed Health talks about how antidepressants make chemicals in the brain such as serotonin, which is believed to control nerve connections in the brain; ultimately causing Major Depressive Disorder. I loved the way this source explains the way one goes about taking an antidepressant after accepting the possible symptoms. PubMed Health has a great outlook on how these medications work, and how once a patient is prescribed them, they should be gradually weened off over time since the symptoms can be so negative. It also goes into how medications can relieve symptoms, and how well medications work while fighting against severe depression, but is not as effective while treating moderate to mild depression. Another part of taking medications is their a stereotype that a patient is more likely to relapse, where in reality, these are the people that have chronic depression or have had several relapses in the past. This article made it very clear that anti depression medications have serious side effects, but also help people with severe depression get back in control of their lives.

 

 

 

https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/treatment-resistant-depression-psychotherapy#1

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/psychotherapy-for-depression

https://www.psycom.net/depression.central.teens.medication.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0087089/


Spotlight Blog 3- Option 3

There is a lot of controversy over whether medication or therapy is better when  seeking treatment for a mental health condition. Major depressive disorder is the most common mental health condition in the U.S. and can be treated with either medication or psychotherapy. There are many reasons why each of these treatments are better than the other. Psychotherapy is a talk therapy that allows the client to speak with a professional about how they feel, which is great for people with major depressive disorder because it makes them feel heard and they are able to be given coping mechanisms from the therapist based on what they tell the therapist. Psychotherapy is not categorized as one thing, there are many different kinds of psychotherapy that the therapist would be able to decide what technique they would use based on the client. All types of psychotherapy teach individuals about depression, help the client understand, express and control their feelings more effectively, and transform their negative feelings to be more positive and uplifting.

There are many traits that make up a good therapist;

sophisticated, builds trust, acceptable, influential, optimistic, reflective, and hopeful.

By having a therapist with these traits, the use of psychotherapy as treatment is better than medication because it is more cost effective and leads to less relapse. In a study performed by Boadie W. Dunlop, M.D., people with depression were more likely to refuse medication than to refuse psychotherapy, and those who were treated with medication were more likely to drop out of treatment earlier than those who were being treated with psychotherapy.

There are a lot of people who do believe that medication is a better alternative to treating major depressive disorder. Kathryn McHugh did an investigation of the McLean hospital where she discovered the majority of patients preferred medicinal treatment over psychological treatment.  It has been proven that medication will help relieve depression, but it is difficult to prove that psychotherapy can do the same thing. Although psychotherapy has been deemed evidence-based, people find it hard to believe that this is true and trusting the studies that prove this, which is why many people still prefer medication over psychotherapy.

It was very difficult to find articles about why medication is more effective than psychotherapy when used for mental illnesses and I think this is because many people are now looking for the healthiest and most effective way to get help. I think that many people are afraid of medication and are aware of all the harm it can do. Psychotherapy is a healthier and safer way to get help for mental illnesses because it doesn’t come with side effects or a list of dangers, it’s a client telling the therapist how they feel and being able to confide in someone they trust and getting support and coping strategies that are healthy and helpful specifically for them that can be changed according to the specific client at any time.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is effective

Psychotherapy vs. depression

Medication vs. Psychotherapy

Medication


December Spotlight Post

http://www.yourlifecounts.org/blog/20-ways-avoid-peer-pressure

This website lists tips for avoiding peer pressure for teenagers. “Ask 101 questions,” “Say ‘No’ like you mean it,” “Back up a no with a positive statement,” “Be repetitive,” “Practice saying no,” “Get away from the pressure zone,” “Avoid stressful situations in the first place,” “Use the buddy system,” “Confront the leader of the pack,” “Consider the results of giving in,” “Look for positive role models,” “Don’t buy the line that everyone’s doing it,” “Seek support,” “Be your own best friend,” “Find ways to excel,” “Don’t pressure others,” “Speak out!,” “Watch your moods,” “Evaluate your friendships,” and “Find new friends” are the recommendations from the website. These tips are likely generally effective. Consistently reaffirming a “no” can dissuade those creating tension from continuing to pressure others. Friends who do not participate in actions which are forced can also aide in stopping others from causing peer pressure. Interactions with friends who enforce negative actions should be suspended. Independently speaking out against peer pressure is equally as effective as speaking out in a group. There are some flaws in these tips. Avoiding stressful situations can be difficult for teenagers, especially in high school and college settings. This suggestion is not likely to be as successful as the others.

https://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/6-tips-resisting-peer-pressure/

This website lists tips for parents with children susceptible to peer pressure. These tips are “Don’t overreact,” “Talk about what makes a true friend,” “Get to know your child’s friends,” “Talk about what independence really means,” “Role play peer pressure,” and “Model saying ‘No’.” The suggestions may be somewhat successful for parents. Demonstrating peer pressure and how to resist it can teach children to avoid peer pressure at young ages. Monitoring a child’s relationships to determine influences can stop the child from entering potentially harmful friendships. More recommendations could be added to this list. The existing tips are somewhat vague. Despite this, parents can glean some useful information from this website.

http://www.goodcharacter.com/BCBC/Pressures.html

This website list tips for avoiding peer pressure for middle schoolers. “Take time out,” “Do something else for awhile- exercise, read, see a movie, listen to music,” “Talk to someone- friends, parents, a teacher or counselor,” “Ask for help,” “Take a fresh look; brainstorm new solutions,” “Don’t be overly critical of yourself; give yourself a break,” “Think of your past accomplishments,” “Think about your good qualities,” “Learn your limits; don’t take on more than you can handle,” “Put things in perspective; pressures usually pass,” “Write a journal,” and “Use your sense of humor” are the tips from the website. These suggestions are likely helpful for middle schoolers struggling with pressured situations. Encouraging students to seek assistance from parents and teachers can be beneficial. Writing journals, brainstorming, and reflecting upon oneself can create distractions from the pressured situation. Knowing one’s limitations and not being overly critical of oneself allow stressors to be lessened. There are some flaws in these tips. Pressures may not always pass quickly. Handling the situation immediately is optimal.


Spotlight blog 3: Option 1

Peer pressure is pervasive, especially with ages that are still in school such as elementary to high school. I don’ t think college students are effected that much by peer pressure because by that age they’re not as easy to persuade. The first website I looked at was for parents. The website gave parents tip to give to their children about how to deal with peer pressure. The first tip was to take a deep breath; when a peer asks you to do something you don’t feel comfortable with doing, just take a deep breath. I thought that was a weird tip to give someone. Not only will your child be peer pressured, there might be a possibility to their getting bullied as well. The second tip was to tell the peers that they are doing bad things and could result in consequences. Most children that do risky things and peer pressure others already know that they are doing something that they shouldn’t be. That being said, I don’t think that this tip is very helpful either. The only helpful tip that came from this website was thinking about the consequences that come with having risky behaviors.

The second website I researched was for college students. The website said to be confident about yourself. Peer pressure comes from conformity, which is people having the tendency to submit to a group. I thought this was a good tip because the more confident you are in yourself, the less likely you are to change your views or morals. Another tip was to become friends with people who share similar values and morals. There will be no need for peer pressure if your friends do the same things as you do. The media makes it seem like college is all about partying and getting drunk, but they are just as many people that don’t go out than the ones that do. You just have to find a group of people that do what you want to do.

The last website I looked at was for teenagers. I think peer pressure effects teenagers in high school the most because they’re still trying to figure themselves out. It is easier for them to actually give into peer pressure. The first tip was to ask a lot of questions. When someone asks you if you want to smoke, ask them why they smoke. I don’t think that this is a good tip because you don’t want to make the person uncomfortable, especially if it is your friend. You don’t want to come off as being judgmental. The best tip that this website gave was to say no with confidence. Confidence is key in any group dynamic, if a person senses insecurity they might keep asking you do something that you don’t want to do. Another good tip is to try not to put yourself in a stressful situation. If you don’t like drinking or smoking, and feel uncomfortable with saying no, then find friends that do alternative activities.

https://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/5-steps-resist-peer-pressure/

http://www.mycollegepal.com/blog/how-avoid-peer-pressure-college

http://www.yourlifecounts.org/blog/20-ways-avoid-peer-pressure

 


Spotlight Blog 3: Peer Pressure

Peer pressure can be brought up in someone’s life no matter their age. It can be very difficult to go against a crowd of people. Especially the ones you know very well. The pressuring situations may become more serious the older you get. Ways to resist peer pressure may have some overlapping methods, but there are some specific methods given to go against pressure at different stages of life.

Kidshealth.org refer to peer pressure as the influence people your age give when dealing with certain decisions. They include how some people give in to the peer pressure. Mainly kids, find it difficult to go against their peers because they want to be liked or want to fit in with the majority. Kids health simply put resisting peer pressure as having the strength and confidence to say “no” to something that goes against your beliefs. That is what everyone is told, but there is so much more to peer pressure than just saying no. Some influence is very powerful no matter how confident you are in yourself. This site also suggests to surround yourself with friends that have similar views and beliefs as you. This will keep situations of peer pressure to a minimum. If they do arise, staying close to these people can help say no peer influence. These are well known and simple ideas to resist peer pressure. As kids get older more serious situations arise and the harder it is to resist the influence.

Teens.webmd.com relates peer pressure to teens specifically. The difficult situation that arises is the use of alcohol and drugs. Their description of peer pressure is conforming to “the group” wether is the jocks, musicians, or populars. Some situations teens are likely to face involve high risk. This site suggests considering the risks of the situation. If there is a party with alcohol, problems that could arise are if the police arrive and you get arrested. A snowball of questions can arise; how will this effects my parents, will this ruin getting into college later. This is a good idea on how to resist pressure because it makes you think about the consequences of the situation and having negatives out number the positives makes the decision easier to make.

Uwhealth.org focuses on adult peer pressure. As adults are more mature since their teenage years, the ideas to help resolve peer pressure are more sophisticated. They go back to the simple way of just say no. This is a more reasonable suggestion because adults have a better understanding of themselves and their beliefs. They are stronger and can directly say no to a stressing situation presented to them. If saying no isn’t enough for the ones pressuring you, uwhelth suggests replying with statements that start with “I think, I will, and I want”. This shows good self control and strong hold on personal views. Validating yourself is a good method given to be strong against pressure. Some may always be against your personal views, but knowing you resisted the pressure can make you feel better because you stood up and stuck to your beliefs. From psych, self-efficacy is the belief in your own abilities. Having this belief keeps you stronger to stand up against the pressure being put on.

There are many ways to help resist peer pressure, but it ultimately comes down you your choice. You can weigh the risks, consult others, or make an excuse. But after all these things, the only thing that stops the pressure is a direct “no” and removing yourself from the unwanted situation. Staying true to yourself may be difficult at the time, its worth it later.

Sources:

“Dealing With Peer Pressure.” Edited by D’Arcy Lyness, KidsHealth, The Nemours                       Foundation, July 2015, kidshealth.org/en/kids/peer-pressure.html#.

“Teens and Peer Pressure.” WebMD, WebMD, teens.webmd.com/peer-pressure#2.

University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority. “Dealing with Peer Pressure                 When You’re an Adult.” UW Health, http://www.uwhealth.org/news/dealing-with-peer-                 pressure-when-youre-an-adult/46604.

 


Spotlight Blog 3

For this spotlight blog I chose to do the third option about psychotherapy versus medication for treatment of major depressive disorder. Finding different articles was quite easy since this is a very prominent topic in todays society. For the most part, the articles were debating back and forth about the pros and cons of each type of treatment. For the most part I found that there are more articles that lean more toward the use of psychotherapy as treatment. Most say that medication will help in short term but psychotherapy is more long lasting.

The first article in favor of psychotherapy treatment talks about how over the years psychology has become a more rigorously tested science which has led to the evidence behind the effectiveness of this treatment. According to this article, there was a study that cognitive therapy was just as effective as antidepressants when dealing with chronic depression. Doctors have seen people make bigger strides with just the use of therapy. Slowly, doctors are starting to realize that the first line of treatment recommended should be behavioral strategies and not medication. Theres no reason for people to have excuses to not go to therapy because insurance companies now cover it since it is the treatment for a mental condition.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2016/05/06/a-few-things-that-therapy-may-do-better-than-medication-according-to-science/#7bd6dd344243

The second article I found talks about other types of treatment but the little parts about psychotherapy and medication stand out. The article says that medication can be used but all it does is treat the chemical aspect of everything and it doesn’t do anything for the underlying causes of the depression. It also says how antidepressants come with side effects and safety concerns. In comparison, it says how psychotherapy helps you understand the underlying causes and how to deal with them. It can help you deal with your relationships with others as well as help you reduce stressors in you life or at work or school that will only serve to worsen your depression.

https://www.helpguide.org/articles/depression/depression-treatment.htm

The first article I found in favor of medication talked about all the symptoms that will be relieved with the help of different medications. This article says that medications can help get rid of symptoms like anxiety, restlessness, and suicidal thoughts and stop them from every coming back. Though they may not be as beneficial for mild cases of depression, they’re very effective for very severe cases and can help prevent relapses for many people.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0087089/

The second article for medication talked about how medication plays a crucial role in the treatment of depression. It said how medication is very important for people with chronic and long term symptoms. According to the article, a certain kind of antidepressant is proven to consistently reduce symptoms by 30-60%.

http://www.bhevolution.org/public/medications.page

I though that it was near impossible to find articles that were in favor of medication over psychotherapy. There are just too many side effects and dangerous aspects to it. I believe that psychotherapy is the way to go even though it may take sometime to get better. It confronts the underlying reasons for depression and how to deal them and I believe that’s the only way to improve. By handling that, I think that this in turn will improve the symptoms that medication is said to get rid of.

 


Spotlight Post #3

For my Spotlight #3 Post, I’m choosing to write about the effectiveness of psychotherapy versus the use of medications to treat major depressive disorder. I found a lot of different articles that gave good arguments for both sides. One article written on WebMD titled “Talk Therapy vs Meds for Major Depression,” mentioned that many studies showed that patients were equally helped by both forms of treatment, however, people mentioned that patients are a lot less likely to go for psychotherapy unless it was suggested by their doctor. So while it was shown that people were equally helped by both forms of treatment, more people choose to take medication because that is the form that is suggested by their doctor more often. Another article I read came from the Mayo Clinic. It also said that both forms of treatment are effective, and also listed some cons of taking medications. It said that taking anti-depressants can cause physical dependence to the medication so if the patient stops taking their medication for any reason, they can experience withdrawal-like symptoms and their depression could worsen. Another potential risk to young adults is increased suicidal thoughts while taking anti-depressant medications; it is usually a result of a changed dosage. While medications can help with physiological problems like serotonin imbalances, psychotherapy can helps with a patient’s behavior. It can turn a behavior that is negatively affecting the person’s depression and redirect them into a positive behavior. Another article that I read titled, “Psychotherapy vs. Medications: The Verdict Is In,” was definitely advocating more for the use of psychotherapy than for antidepressants. They gave support for their argument by citing all the potentially harmful side effects, including how it is possible for people to overdose on their medication if taken with alcohol. The next article that I read gave some pros and cons of medication versus psychotherapy. The article gave a few reasons that people normally choose antidepressants over psychotherapy. One reason was that people usually see faster results from taking medication over going to therapy; it can take six to eight weeks longer for someone to start to see positive results. Also, psychotherapy alone is not usually enough to treat someone that has severe depression so medications are usually required. As far as credibility, I think the articles from WebMD and the Mayo Clinic are credible sources. They cite information taken from academic journals to back up their claims. As far as the last two articles go, I do not think they are as credible as the first two. It does not mean that the information that they are giving necessarily is wrong, the pages just have not been reviewed by medical professionals. I personally believe that people should try psychotherapy before they decide to take antidepressants because they could potentially be helped without adding chemicals to their body. I am not a fan of taking medications, or even getting vaccines because sometimes I think doctors go overboard with prescribing medications, especially when there is potentially another treatment that could be effective in helping their patient. I do not think it is always healthy to add all the extra chemicals to your body unless it is necessary.

 

References

https://www.webmd.com/depression/news/20151208/talk-therapy-antidepressants-offer-similar-results-for-major-depression#1

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20356013

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201507/psychotherapy-vs-medications-the-verdict-is-in

http://www.healthcommunities.com/depression/psychotherapy-for-depression-and-bipolar-disorder_jhmwp.shtml