Chapter 15 First Impression

--Original published at JVershinski's Blog

If I needed therapy, I think humanistic would be most effective, followed by cognitive, behavioral, and finally, psychodynamic. I think that humanistic therapy would be most effective for me because a lot of the time, when someone tells me I’m doing something wrong, even if it’s right, if there’s a doubt in my mind that I could be doing it wrong, then I will believe that I’m doing it wrong. I think that by increasing self awareness and by learning to trust myself, that could really help me out. Cognitive therapy would be the second most effective because it even states that self-blaming is one of the things that feeds depression. While I’m not depressed, I do tend to self blame a decent amount because I tend to think that I could have done something better. Cognitive therapy would allow me to evaluate myself in certain situations and see that maybe I could have done something better, but maybe I couldn’t have. Behavioral therapy would be third most effective for me because I somewhat get where the therapists are coming from when they say that the problem behaviors are the problem, but I do not completely agree with that. Yes, sometimes the problem behaviors in certain situation are the problem, but I do not think that they are the only problem, and I also like to believe that self-awareness can fix some problems. Finally, psychodynamic therapy would be the least effective because I don’t really agree with comparing different relationships to try to determine what the problem is. While comparing relationships can indeed determine some problems, I do not think that these relationships should be compared because they are not built equally, nor are the actively participated in equally.

Media Production

--Original published at JVershinski's Blog

Getting recommendations from someone is not something we put a lot of thought into. You’re looking for a suggestion to see if anyone else knows someone or something that could help to solve some kind of problem you have. Some people value others’ suggestions, and some people wave them aside. However, it is now being tested that a machine may give better suggestions than other people. New research indicates that machines do indeed give better recommendations in a field that is usually very human-like area, humor.

Participants in this study were given a series of jokes and asked to rate them on a scale from -10 to 10, with -10 being the least funny and 10 being the most funny. However, each experiment in this overall study had a slight difference in how the assessment was made as well as what additional questions were asked. For example, one of the experiments allowed the participants to know whether the recommendations they were being given were human or machine, while a different study told the participants the opposite source of where the joke truly came from. (Ex. If the joke came from a machine, the participants were told it came from a human and vice versa)

Participants from this study were selected from two different locations: the Museum of Science and Industry or Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk. Participants were randomly selected, but some of the participants responses were dropped due to various reasons including: incomplete responses, failure to comply with instructions, failure to pass manipulation check, or giving the same rating to every joke. In total, there were about 3,750 participants recruited to partake in the study, but only 3,647 of the responses were recorded.

These results should have the ability to be applied to the general public because the participants were selected from the general public. I do not think that these results should be specified to only those from the museum or from the Turk because the people there are no different from the everyday person.

The results of all of the studies were quite interesting. First, it was determined that computer algorithms can generate better recommendations than actual people. This was based off of personal preference of the subjects. Second, the computer generated recommendations can be created from very little information. In the study, the computers that were generating the recommendations did not have any personal information about the person, beyond the ratings which they gave to the jokes. Finally, it was concluded that people preferred human recommendations over machine generated ones, despite the accuracy of the machines being higher. People seem to value human recommendations higher, which influences their opinion of the recommendation. This goes to show that even though it may not be as accurate as a machine, there could still be some value to human recommendations.

Reflection

As I went through the article and wrote my summary of it, I decided to include some of the 5 critical questions, but not all of them. I thought it would be important to include the first two questions about selecting participants and operationalizing values because I thought that it would be useful information the reader should know. However, because the groups chosen were already the groups that would be partaking in the study, there was nothing to write about how the individuals were separated into groups. I also decided to not include whether or not the study allows for causal claims, because I think that based off of the information given, that answer can be figured out by the reader. Finally, I did include the ability of the study to generalize to the public. I think that this is important because it was not included in the study, but it is important because machine recommendations are already working their way into the life of millions of people, so I thought that it was important to point out.

Compared to the article, I think that my summary shares the most prevalent of the 5 critical questions. Both my summary and the article talk about how the study operationalized the values for the subjects, but that was the only question that was included in both. I decided to also share how the study could be generalized to the right population as well as how the participants were selected because I thought it was important in the study. Neither my summary or the article talked about how the participants were split into groups or if the study allowed for causal claims. I think this was a good move because the reader can determine from the information given the answer to both of those questions.

The pop culture article was written with what seemed to be the reader in mind. It had a small intro that allowed for a smooth transition between the topic of the research and the research itself. The scholarly article seemed to be written with the research in mind, and the reader secondary. It focused on the research very thoroughly and was not written to be read for entertainment. My summary was more like the pop culture article I think. I think I wrote my summary to tell the reader about the study, but also to be a little entertaining. It was more a strict summary of the research so that the reader could read my summary, and know what the study was about and the results of it. Three different approaches for the same study, but each with their own unique way of conveying the information across for different purposes.

Sources:

“Why Ask a Machine for a Recommendation?” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, http://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/choice-matters/201905/why-ask-machine-recommendation.

Yeomans, M., Shah, A., Mullainathan, S., & Kleinberg, J. (2019). Making sense of recommendations. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.2118

Psychology in the Media

--Original published at Courtney's College Blog

Summary:

In 1973, John M. Darley and C. Daniel Batson published the study, “‘From Jerusalem to Jericho’: A study of situational and dispositional variables in helping behavior.” This study was based off the Good Samaritan Bible story and used Princeton University seminary students as participants. First, the participants took questionnaires to determine their reasons for pursuing priesthood. This determined three categories: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and a quest for the meaning of life. Then, the students were told to prepare a speech about the possible jobs seminary students could pursue. Half of the students were told the story of the Good Samaritan prior to the next step. After the students had their speeches prepared, they individually walked to another building to continue the study. The independent variable had three groups depending on how much of a rush they were in to get to the second building. They encountered a fallen individual, with his head down, groaning, and coughing. The participants were graded on a scale from zero to five on how helpful they were to the troubled man. When they got to the second building, they were asked several questions about helping the needy, in order to validate the results. The results determined the amount of hurry to be the factor in determining the helpfulness of the participants. The presence of the Good Samaritan story and the motivation for priesthood had no effect. This determined that situational factors are more important than dispositional ones.

Reflection:

I decided to include all of the main points in my summary. The independent variables were stated along with how they were measured. I also included some background information about the study. I chose to include these details because I wish they were included in Glenn Geher’s “My Favorite Psychology Study.” I read this popular culture article before I read the scientific journal article. After I read the journal article, I noticed some details that should have been added, so I included them in my summary.

I included how the variables were operationalized. The independent variables were clearly stated, and the summary included how data collection was done. The participants were all seminary students at Princeton University, as stated at the beginning of the summary. The participants were assigned to several groups throughout the study, as clearly shown in the study. One of the groups were determined by personal motivations, and the others by random assignment. The independent variable that made a difference utilized random assignment, so it is credible. The method does not allow for causal claims because the independent variables are unrelated. The conclusions of this post are generalized to the correct population because it educates the class about a particular study. Although I do not have a degree in psychology (yet), it is acceptable because a blog post is casual way of conveying information.

The study, as published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, was much more detailed than Geher’s post. The journal had more sophisticated diction. The popular culture article stuck with a casual tone and defined terms that scientists would know. This is expected because a scientific journal attracts a scholarly audience, while a popular culture article targets the general population. The scientific journal answered all five of the critical questions. The popular culture article only answered a few. It described how variables were operationalized, how participants were selected, and how the participants were assigned to groups. They are similar because they explained the study in a chronological manner and conveyed the same conclusions.

Through analyzing the differences between the scientific journal and the website article, I noticed several differences between the style of writing. Scientists, as learned from the scientific journal, are more attentive to detail and explain the entire study. While analyzing the popular culture article, I noticed that these articles focus only on the important parts of the study, while using simple diction and defining complicated terms. In my blog post, I used a mixture of both styles. I made this decision because this post is not as scholarly as a scientific journal, but is still used for educational purposes.

Sources:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/darwins-subterranean-world/201703/my-favorite-psychology-study

Darley, J. M., & Batson, C. D. (1973). ‘From Jerusalem to Jericho’: A study of
     situational and dispositional variables in helping behavior [PDF].
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

First Impression Post; Mental Illness

--Original published at olivyahvanek

From watching this video, I learned a lot more about the symptoms and reactions that people who have schizophrenia have. Before watching this video I never really realized that that is how they react and that is what is constantly going through their head. I think that people living with this mental illness are portrayed differently in the media, than how they really react in real life. Although actually experiencing these side effects and symptoms is much different in real life, than they are in this video, it still strongly affected me while I was watching it because the video actually showed how hard living with this mental illness really is for people. It showed me how hard it must be to suffer from one of these mentally illnesses because I had a hard time from just watching a video about it. In the media people usually portray schizophrenia as a mental illness that actually makes people go crazy and act insane all the time, rather than actually showing what is going on inside their heads. I think that the media shows this mental illness to be much worse and harder for people to live with than it actually is in real life because they make people with schizophrenia in the media way more crazy and uncontrollable, where as people in real life that have it are not nearly as uncontrollable as they are making them seem. Doing this simulation showed me what people that have to live with schizophrenia go through every single day and it makes me realize what kind of things they have to go through just to live a normal life. Doing this simulation really opened my eyes to mental illnesses and actually showed me what they are like in real life, rather than learning false information from the media.

The Misunderstood Condition of Schizophrenia

--Original published at Sherika's Psych Blog

Schizophrenia is often ones of psychologies most misunderstood psychoses. Often times in the media, the condition is treated as not as the life altering psychosis that it is but instead a condition that is romanticized in nature along with mental health and illness in general. In the YouTube video titled, “Types of Schizophrenia- A day in the life of (Scary),” the video walks the viewer through the life of someone living with the condition. Allowing the viewer to experience audio-sensory stimulation that someone living with either undiagnosed or diagnosed condition of Schizophrenia might live through.

The video starts of light-hearted enough with the viewer going about their daily morning routine, getting prepared, dressed, and even enjoying a morning cup of coffee. However, the video soon takes a differing turn as the viewer begins to hear disembodied voices and even believes that the phone rings. The voices soon begin to fill the viewer with doubt, arguing that people are conspiring against them, attempting to poison them, and even convince the viewer to not take medicine that is prescribed to them. All while filling the viewer with doubt and negative thoughts about themselves.

The viewer then hallucinates that weather people on the television is talking to them or that someone harmless like a pizza delivery person is out to get them. Overall the experience itself felt stressful, like I myself was constantly at war with my own thoughts and felt paranoid all the time. Like what if the delivery person who is still standing outside my home and notices me looking through the window really wishes harm against me?

Overall, the entire experience was nothing like what the media romanticizes Schizophrenia to be and the only shows I’ve ever seen get it right or weekday detective dramas that have officers on a local and federal level who interact with suspects or witnesses that have Schizophrenia. The media still, however, has a long way to go when it comes to the portrayal of conditions like Schizophrenia and other mental illnesses and mental health in general.

Chapter 14 First Impression

--Original published at Noah'sPSY105blog

For this Chapter, I decided to inspect the Change Direction website. Throughout the website they have different campaigns that they have either organized or endorsed that helped raise awareness when it comes to mental health issues. Overall, I believe that this campaign can be very successful. Not only are they trying to send a great message, as well as offer help to individuals who are struggling with different mental illnesses, they are also doing a wonderful job in raising awareness with these different events. Although this movement isn’t very large at the moment, it is starting to gain a very large amount of momentum. The campaign was started with around 50 partners in 2013 and currently has 700 partners located all around the world. I think the largest strength of this campaign is that they are very active when it comes to social media and trying to reach the largest audience that they are capable of. The biggest drawback in my opinion is that they are not gaining enough traction globally and seems as if they are strongly focused on growth within the United States. I believe that college students are most likely going to be the largest demographic that this campaign is going to reach. This is because many students are aware of other students or loved ones who may be struggling with a particular mental illness and also due to the fact that they are so involved and active on social media. If Etown were to organize an awareness campaign on this particular issue, I believe they would be able to set time aside to host talks to raise awareness, but could also have the means to provide different services to help students feel comfortable talking about these issues, whether it be opening up to friends so they can provide help, or the individual seeking out professional assistance themselves.

Chapter 14 First Impression

--Original published at JVershinski's Blog

I thought this simulation was very cool to be a part of. It was interesting to be taken through a day in the life of a schizophrenic, and it helped to show the things that are not normally depicted by the media. Without much knowledge or background with schizophrenia, this video really helped to show someone what a schizophrenic could experience in a typical day. I think that the voices heard played a key role in how I personally felt in the simulation, and the continuous conflict did not make focusing easy. The hallucinations were quite interesting to see and would not settle well with me if I was experiencing them.

In the media, schizophrenics are typically depicted as very insane or crazy. They are shown as people with no control of themselves or the actions they take, and are spoken of as if they are an alien. They are treated as someone completely different and isolated from the real world. This is not how it should be. While schizophrenics do experience things that a “normal” person wouldn’t, this does not make them insane or crazy. Yes, the hallucinations they experience and the voices they hear are typically associated with the mentally insane, but the life we followed in the video does not seem insane. It was certainly different, and the person acted differently than a “normal” person would have, but I think that the media takes things too far with people who have mental conditions, and pushes the boundaries with how they show them.

The Implicit Association Test

--Original published at Sherika's Psych Blog

The process of taking the Implicit Association Test was interesting, as a progressive human society we like to believe that we don’t have any biases when it comes to others, but the test forces you to reflect upon such notions and beliefs. To test whether I truly had biases against others in some capacity, I decided to take the AST’s age and Native tests.

When it came to the age test I was tasked with separating images into different categories ; pressing the E key for pictures and words that I felt were associated with older people and the I key for things that I felt were associated with younger people. When the second part of the test occurred, the E key now became things that were associated with a negative connotation and I was for positive ones. The test continued in this fashion, combing thoughts and emotions into one category while forcing me to categorize the words and images that I saw. At the conclusion of the test, it determined that I had no automatic preference for either young or old people.

The second test attempted to determine if I held an association with the terms “foreign” and “American” in conjunction to Native Americans as well as White Americans. To which the test determined that I held no associate with either.

In regards to the tests themselves I felt that results weren’t particularly surprising, especially as my own brand of philosophical thoughts regarding everyone as a whole operates under a complex series of thoughts that can only be summarized as, “I hate humanity equally as much as I enjoy and love it.” So I felt that my thoughts or potential biases about anything would come close to my personal feelings.

Chapter 14 First Impression Post

--Original published at Courtney's College Blog

For this assignment, I watched the video stimulating the life of someone with schizophrenia. The person had shaky vision and heightened senses. The sound of the water droplets in the sink, car beeping, and outside noises were prominent. There were many negative voices in the person’s head that sometimes were fighting with each other, and other times telling the person that he is “stupid,” along with other negative adjectives. He did not take his medication. There was a news story about a robbery on the television. The man kept thinking, “they know,” which leads me to believe the man did it. The people on the television were directly talking to him. When the pizza came, the man was hesitant to open the door, and made the interaction as quickly as possible. He believed that the pizza man was a part of a group plotting against him, and that the pizza was poisonous. He heard pounding on the door, and thought someone was breaking in. It was actually a woman who lived with him, and it was unclear whether she was a wife, mother, or another figure. She noticed that he did not take his medicine and told him to take it. She told him that he should go outside, which was percieved as offensive to the man. 

The stimulation is similar to how schizophrenia is seen in the media, although schizophrenia cannot be classified as whole because every person shows it differently. People with schizophrenia are commonly known to not take their medicine. They are withdrawn, which is shown because the man stayed in his house all day with no desire to leave. I was also not surprised by the man’s heightened senses. People with schizophrenia sometimes are criminals, as seen in the news broadcast. Also, I expected the man to have trouble making decisions. I wish the video showed the man talking. Schizophrenia in the media is shown by abnormal speech and sentences that do not make sense, so I wonder how the video would have portrayed that. The video was intriguing, and I am looking forward to learning more about mental illness in this chapter.

First Impression Post; Social

--Original published at olivyahvanek

Taking these tests did not surprise me much, as the results were pretty much what I was expecting. I feel as though I know myself well and was expecting the results that I ended up getting. While taking the test I had clear answers that came to mind while I was reading the questions because I know what my beliefs are and it was easy for me to come up with the answers.

I think that my results were not surprising because I already know what things I think and what my beliefs are, and they are stronger beliefs, so it is pretty difficult to change my opinion. Taking this test was different because some of the questions that were asked, I did not expect. Although some of the questions were more out there than other questions, most of the one asked were questions that I had expected to be on the test.

I think that this test could be useful for college students because it could help to show them what their beliefs are and can also help them to see what they actually believe, rather than what they think they believe in. This test could also be useful in a future career to show the business or place that you are working how you think and what things you believe in before the job is started. This can help people get fired and it can help businesses and companies to know who to hire or not hire people if they do not fit into the company.