Johari Window Reflection

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

I really enjoyed doing the Johari Window. It was nice to see what people think about you. Personally I know that I struggle with self image and self-esteem so seeing everyones positive response was surprising. In addition, it was interesting to see how my self-self-preception varied from what others thought. I felt that this process was similar to that of the IAT test. Both tests compared one’s self perceptions and then gave you a realistic response based off of other responses.

The six words I chose to describe myself were accepting, caring, friendly, mature, observant, and organized. Only two these words, caring and mature, were chosen by other people. Words that other’s choose included: able, bold, calm, confident, depended, energetic, intelligent, kind, loving, silly, and sympathetic. These are all words I would not use to describe myself, but seeing that this is what other people thought was very heart-warming.

The people that I choose to complete the survey included parents, friends, and teammates. I feel that by doing this my results were fairly accurate. When doing a test such as this, it is important to chooses people who you show the “real” you. If someone you didn’t really know, filled out this assessment I feel like they really wouldn’t know what to put which would make the test inaccurate.

I feel like this test is fairly reliable as long as you pick people who you’re close with to fill it out otherwise it will be inaccurate. One issue I had with the test though was the words that were available. Most words basically said the same thing. If a wider range of words were added I feel that it would become even more effective in determining peoples personalities.

Chapter 12 First Impression Post

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

Going into taking the test I was unsure of what the expect. The Implicit Association Test was designed to measure the strength of peoples automatic association between mental representation of objects in memory. Once I opened the test I was instantly shown different tests that I could take. The different tests included topics such as age, religion, race, and sexuality. The first test I decided to take was the Race IAT. The next screen showed me a series of “good” and “bad” words and also pictures of white and black people. The next part of the test had you use the “E” and “I” keys to identify and match certain words. After completing the test you received your results. Mine were as I expected. Growing up I lived in an area where the white man was a minority. Out of my friends I was the only person not of color. So coming to Elizabeth town was somewhat of a culture shock to me. Hearing certain derogatory words upon my arrival to campus made me question if this was the right school for me. I was raised to believe everyone is equal no matter their color, beliefs, or sexuality.   My results reflected this upbringing quite clearly. For my second IAT I took the test relating to weight. Again the test showed me a series of good and bad words but this time a series of thin framed and heavier-set framed people. I again, needed to use the “E” and “I” keys to identify and make associations. I found my results of this IAT to be surprising. The results showed that I was partially biased to thin over heavy. Generally, I like to consider myself fairly open to all people. I tend to judge people based off of their personality rather than their appearance. Upon further reflection, I realize that most of the people I am surrounded with in my life have similar frames to me. Being a student athlete is very taxing on the body and requires a certain level of physical fitness. Having practice everyday and team meals everyday causes me to spend my time with my team and not other people. This could be what is causing my supposed bias toward the thinner frame.

Spotlight #2 – Stress

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

Website 1 Students https://www.learnpsychology.org/student-stress-anxiety-guide/

The first website, provides stress management tips for college students through the “5 School Stress Busting Tips.” This method consists of getting plenty of sleep, thinking positively, having a stress outlet, engaging in relaxation techniques and talking to someone. These methods are designed to help you cope with and manage the stress which comes along with being a full time student. Being a college student, you tend to sacrifice sleep in order to socialize with friends or complete your school work. Step one, of the SSBTs tells us to get plenty of sleep because without it, our academic performance is impaired. The second step, tells you to think positively. According to the SSBTs,”positive thinking may improve physical well-being, produce lower feelings of depression and produce lower levels of distress”(Cohen). The next step tells you to have a stress outlet. This could include finding an intramural sport you like or joining a social club. Next you should find a relaxation technique. A good relaxation technique could be slowly counting to ten or meditation. The final step, tells you to talk to someone. Talking to someone is a good way to reduce stress and clear you mind.

I would say all of the steps presented in the SSBT are adaptive strategies to relieve stress. When I say adaptive strategies I mean that all of the tips decrease the stress without other complications such as those of self-indulgence. Self-indulgence is a form of stress relief in which you do something pleasant to compensate for your stress, but it tends to backfire because you are not actually addressing the stressor itself. On another note, all of the steps are also emotion-focused. All the steps focus on how you react to the stressor. I would say the 5 School Stress Busting Tips are effective in decreasing stress.

Website 2 Parents/Children psych central.com/…/7-tips-for-helping-your-child-manage-stress

In this website, psych central gives us 7 tips to reduce stress in children. The seven tips presents us with both problem-focused and emotion-focused constructive strategies. The tips are also geared to ensure that children don’t lash out. These tips address the stressors in a healthy manner as opposed to maladaptive strategies, such as drugs alcohol or self harm. The tips include stop over-scheduling, make time for play, make sleep a priority, teach your kids to listen to their bodies, manage your own stress, make mornings calmer, and prepare your kids to deal with mistakes. The tips present both forms of constructive strategies. we see problem-focused coping through avoiding over-scheduling and making time to play. Both tips attempt to reduce the stress directly. Tips like teach your kids to listen to their bodies and preparing your kids to deal with mistakes are forms of emotion-focused coping. These tips focus on how the child reacts to the stressor without actually effecting the stressor itself. The fifth tip that we are given also shows us how observational learning takes place. Tip 5 tells us to manage our own stress. We are told to do this because, like Lyon says,”stress is really contagious.” If you are showing signs of stress your child will pick them up through observational learning.

Website 3 Athletes- https://wexnermedical.osu.edu/blog/perfect-method-reduces-athlete-stress 

The last website discussed ways that athletes can cope with stress. These tips are provided in the form of an acronym called P.E.R.F.E.C.T. This method attempts to build and support an athletes self-esteem. Athletes are constantly undergoing mass amounts of pressure and regularly experience performance anxiety. The P.E.R.F.E.C.T. method stands for “positive self talk, embracing adversity, reverse engineering, focusing on the now, evolve, chill out, and talk it out”(Doncaster). That being said, both positive self talks and embracing adversity come into play when talking about secondary appraisal. Secondary appraisal is the way that people cope with their stress. In order to combat their stress, athletes need to have a high confidence level. This confidence will make coping with stressors easier and allow the athletes to perform to the best of their ability. Being an athlete, I know that no matter what sport you play you will always be placed in a stressful situation. It is better for athletes to learn how to cope with the stressors in an emotion-focused approach because the stressor will never truly be gone and if it is another will surface. In sports, problem-focused coping is not effective because there is always another situation to address.

Chapter 9 First Impression Post

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

Throughout school I have experienced several different types of teachers. The type of teachers I have had varies greatly. I have had teachers who barely said a word the whole corse and teachers who were so strict that if we even lost eye contact with them they would say something. Personally, I think that my favorite style of teacher is one who tries to involve you as much as possible. I also like the type of teacher who has a sense of humor. My junior year of high school, I had a teacher who forever changed the way I view school. She was the type of teacher who tried to incorporate as much hands on acrivities as possible. She also used a lot of visual aids when lecturing which helped me learn. Also in that year I had the worse teacher of my life. He was my math teacher and spent more time talking to us about how his cats were doing then on the quadratic formula. When it came time for a test, no one in the class knew what we were doing. Once he realized that everyone in the class was failing  he started teaching in a way that was still ineffective. He began writing things on the board, but it was so fast that no one could understand it.

I think that the best way to teach nowadays would be in a way that promotes students to participate without having them feel forced. Learning should be fun and inviting. The way the school system is set up now makes students feel overwhelmed. Students should be allowed to take courses that interest them not ones that they are forced to take. If these changes are  implemented the school system would be much more effective.

Chapter 3 Sleep

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

Being a student athlete and a biology premed major has defiantly caused me to sacrifice sleep for school work. Before college I had a pretty structured sleep schedule; asleep by 10:30 and up at 6:30 during the week and then asleep by 12:00 and up by 9:30 on the weekends. Now that I am in college I am probably asleep by 12:30 or so and up by 7. This is not a dramatic change compared to the amount of sleep I used to get, but it is less than the 8 hours of sleep I should be getting. While I do not think my sleep habits are fantastic, compared to other college students, I think they are fairly decent. I receive enough sleep to go about my daily life, classes, practice and studying, and still function efficiently. I definitely think I should be getting more sleep than I am because sleep is very important to promote memory function. Most students see sleep as an option or something to do if you have the time. They are constantly pulling all nighters and staying up late to cram for exams. I think that at the very least students should be getting seven hours of slept improve their productivity and overall mental we being. If students could work more sleep into their schedules than I think they would improve academically overall.

Spotlight Post 1- Option 1

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

Over the past decade, divorce has become more and more common in the United States. This means that more and more children are also being affected. In some families divorce is the only option to put the household at ease but what is controversial is the effect that it has on children. This debate is over how divorce can either leave a child with no emotional damage or can be totally destructive to their mental wellbeing.

In todays society, divorce is seen as a relatively normal thing compared to that of ten years ago. Divorce happens very frequently in todays day in age; people change and so do their wants and needs. When we look at divorce the first thing that is brought to our attention is who gets the house, car, beach house, etc., but what we should be taking a deeper look into is how the child is affected. According to Dr. Jane Anderson, “Each child and each family are obviously unique, with different strengths and weaknesses, different personalities and temperaments, and varying degrees of social, emotional, and economic resources, as well as differing family situations prior to divorce. Despite these differences, divorce has been shown to diminish a child’s future competence in all areas of life, including family relationships, education, emotional well-being, and future earning power.” To further explain Anderson’s thoughts, she also gives bulleted breakdowns to each factor that is influenced by divorce. These factors include: child’s loss of time with each parent, child’s loss of economic security, child’s loss of emotional security and lastly, a child with higher levels of emotional stress. All of these factors can result in an emotionally damaged child.

To support this Cornelia Brentano’s, Divorce: Causes and Consequences, states that depending on the age of the child the emotional results of the divorce can vary, but that all ages experience negative effects in some way. Specifically, “reactions vary with age, but across the board, children experience feelings of confusion and betrayal as they watch their family fall apart and feel neglected while their parents struggle with their own problems” (Brentano). Overall, children, no matter their age, will experience negative effects after a divorce.

Although, a large percentage of children who undergo a divorce, experience negative effects, there are some who come out unaffected and unchanged. According to The Washington Post, “Some children are simply more resilient to stress than others. Others manage to find safe niches that insulate them from the trauma of divorce. They may have a special relationship with another adult, or they may be buffered from the conflict by one parent.” This article argues how some children are simple unaffected by divorce. It explains how every chid is different and that they will have different emotional responses to the divorce itself. Reactions to divorce can be dependent on how well the child is able to cope and their temperament. In addition, Kendra Jolivet, tells us how in 2009 a group of teenagers were asked to fill out a survey on the topic of divorce. The response was very positive. Most teens when asked about divorce said that it made them feel more  independent and that they felt they were old enough to cope with the divorce itself.

Based on what I read, I think that divorce impacts children in a negative way. This negative impact, leads to multiple emotional hardships later on in life and can damage a child mentally. On the other hand, I do believe that if I child is placed in an environment that is dangerous do to the parents relationship, than a divorce can take place.

Anderson, J. (2014). The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce. The Linacre Quarterly, 81(4), 378–387.

Clarke-Stewart, Alison. (2006). Divorce: Causes and Concequences. Yale University Press, 2(5), 1-12.

DIVORCE DOESN’T ALWAYS HURT THE KIDS. (1989, March 19). Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/1989/03/19/divorce-doesnt-always-hurt-the-kids/6432e596-b8d3-45f1-a3f7-0a1029a59240/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.c08d55e4d884MLA (Modern Language Assoc.)

Jolivet, Kendra Randall. The Psychological Impact of Divorce on Children: What is a Family Lawyer to Do? 2011. American Journal of Family Law, 25(4) . Date Accessed 7 October 2018.

APA (American Psychological Assoc.)
Clarke-Stewart, A., & Brentano, C. (2006). Divorce : Causes and Consequences. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press

First Impression Chapter 3

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

There are multiple advantages and disadvantages to the use of marijuana. This is what has created the giant controversy over the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana. With the effects of medical marijuana being so positive it has lead the general public to believe that recreational marijuana has the same effects. People that have prescriptions for medical marijuana use it for pain relief or to relieve some of their already existing symptoms. Those who use recreational marijuana use it to the “high” or “buzz” that they feel once marijuana is consumed.

Medical marijuana provides many benefits such as pain control, especially in patients experiencing multiple sclerosis. It can also help reduce symptoms of PTDS and also promote weight loss. It is also given as a prescription meaning that you are given a particular amount so that you will not develop a tolerance to the drug. Many patients that receive treatment through medical marijuana are sometimes seen as “Potheads” or look down on due to the taboo associated with marijuana.

Recreational marijuana is a completely different story. Those who smoke recreationally use it because they ae chasing a high. I feel that if someone is using marijuana just for the reason alone they are abusing its benefits. People who frequently smoke for recreation also develop a high tolerance to the drug meaning that they need to consume more and more each time to get the same high.

If recreational marijuana were to be legalized I feel as if some restriction to how much you can consume should be made. I also feel that it should be legalized so that it is not seen as taboo and that those who are truly in need of its benefits are not looked at in a different way.

 

Chapter 8 First Impression Post- Memory

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

I believe that everything can be improved upon, especially study habits. I think that I have made fairly good study techniques and habits, the thing I struggle with is finding the time to study. When studying I break everything down into three steps; writing in-depth notes, making real life connections and testing myself. When writing my notes I color code, use diagrams, and highlight. By color coding it helps me draw attention to important details and group certain information. I make diagrams to help visualize particular processes. Lastly, I use highlighter to point out things that are key points or that I need to go over.

After my note taking process is done, I begin making real life examples and connections. For example, in the past week we learned about classical conditioning. For this I would make up scenarios and identify the US, CS, UCR, CR. This allows me to identify examples that we are given on tests or quizzes. By making the real life connections it gives me a better understanding of the notes and able to apply them.

Finally, after I complete my notes and real life examples, I create test questions and enter them in to Quizlet. This allows me to gain a better understanding of what I already know and what I need to study more.

The negatives of my studying style would be that I normally do not leave enough time to go as in-depth into my notes or take as many practice tests as I would like. I believe that my strengths are that I take very good notes and apply real life examples. For the next, “Knowledge Celebration Day,” I will manage my time better a begin studying for the exam this week and try to study for 20 minutes everyday.

 

Chapter 7 First Impression

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

I agree with B.F. Skinner’s claim that free will is spurious. I think that we as humans created the idea of free will because we feel like we need to be in control at all times. To some extent the idea of free will is true; we can make our own decisions and act out of desire, but a majority of our behavior is influenced by the three levels of analysis. These include, biological, psychological and socio-cultural influences.

In the video provided skinner gives the example of gambling and how it is a cause of scheduled reinforcement. On that note if something like gambling is due to scheduled reinforcement, who’s to say that other aspects of our lives aren’t? When someone performs a preferable behavior their is generally a reward; whether it is self rewarding from our brains in the form of serotonin and dopamine or in the form of rewards from society such as friendship and promotion. This human desire for constant reward has created a society which we are constantly undergoing scheduled reinforcement without us even realizing it. It is not until we take a step back, when we realize how conditioned to favorable behavior we really are.

Skinner replicates this human behavior by using pigeons and scheduled reinforcement. The pigeons are taught that by pecking at certain words or color disks that they will eventually be rewarded with food. This reward can be presented after a certain amount of pecks or even after a certain period of time. This experiment replicates the human behavior of gambling very well. People use slot machines and other forms of gambling repeatedly (pecking)  until they win (food reward).  When gambling we think that we are in complete control f how much money we’re betting, but in reality are we just being exposed to scheduled reinforcement?

 

Parenting Styles

--Original published at Marlee's Psych 105 Blog

We all know that raising a child is one of the hardest jobs in the world. I’m not saying its rocket science, but shaping a person into who they’re going to be is no easy task. There are many approaches into how to raise your children; some heard of more than others, but yet all effective to some extent. In my opinion, believe that one of the biggest mistakes people can make when parenting is either being too strict or not strict enough. When parenting people need to find a balance that works for both the child and the parents. For example, Tiger Parenting; this is a type of parenting where all control is in the hands of the parent. It is a very authoritarian approach with little good outcome. Children raised in this style can result in becoming diminished and only motivated by external sources. One the other side of the spectrum there are whats called jellyfish parents. In this type of parenting the power is held in the hand of the child. This is where we see children making demands and parents bending over-backward to satisfy their children needs. Now making your child happy isn’t a bad thing but when it comes questionable choices the child is making their needs to be some sort of parental figure telling them right from wrong. I believe that the best kind of parenting is one that is in balance between strict and relaxed. A child needs to have boundaries and be told no from time to time so that they know the real world won’t be given to them on a silver platter. A child also needs to be given the space ti figure out their interests and develop personality without the influence and push of parental figures. Ultimately, the job of a parent is raise their children to think and act independently but, while also making smart beneficial decisions for themselves and others.