Media Project: Can Psychotic Disorders be Caused by Bullying Between Siblings?

--Original published at HannahsCollegeBlog

Bullying does not just happen in school by peers; but in the safety of a child’s own home, is they can suffer from the most aggression by their own sibling(s). Due to this at home bullying, it has shown to increase the likely-hood of young adults developing psychotic disorders. The University of Warwick, located in the UK, found that through one of their studies, sibling bullying is linked to mental disorders such as schizophrenia. The study also showed that it is not just the victim who is susceptible, but also the perpetrator, both sides of the act are affected.

The researchers wanted to go more in depth on this topic, looking for a correlation between sibling bullying and the development of a psychotic disorder. The study was conducted to answer four questions: is an association between experiencing sibling bullying (victimization or perpetration) at 12 years and the development of psychotic disorder by the age of 18; is a dose-response relationship between the frequency of experiencing sibling victimization or perpetration and psychotic disorder; whether the role taken in sibling bullying (victim, bully, bully-victim) is differentially associated with the psychotic disorder and whether being the victim in more than one setting is cumulatively associated with the development of the psychotic disorder.

The participants involved in this study were selected from a birth cohort. Once the children from the cohort reached twelve years, they took a sample of 3596 children who had previously filled out questionnaires. These participants were then separated into categories based on their results from the questionnaires; the categories consisted of the victim, the bully, the “bully-victim”, and non-involved. The results showed that out of the sample size, 664 came back as being victims, 486 were bullies, and 771 were bully-victims.

Once the participants were around eighteen years of age, the researchers conducted another test to show any symptoms or development of psychotic disorders. The results showed that out of all 3596 participants, 55 of them developed a psychotic disorder by the age of eighteen. The data collected from this study shows that victimized children have around three times the likelihood of meeting the criteria for a psychotic disorder. The data also shows that both sibling bullying and peer bullying can increase the risks of developing a psychotic disorder.

Results from the study indicate that any type of involvement in sibling bullying will increase the chances of acquiring a psychotic disorder; although, the strongest correlation was found with children who were pure victims or bully-victims. Based on the results of this study, parents and health professionals should become aware of the negative long-term effects of sibling bullying.

Word count: 429

Pop culture article word count: 440

Link to full study:

Link to pop-culture article:



When creating my own pop culture article, I did find it a little challenging to decide what to put in the article and what to leave out. This was a very difficult task because the study contained a substantial amount of information. But, deciphering which details were just little details, important to the psychologists, and which were larger details important to the broad topic of the study was the most challenging part for me.

When writing this article, I tried to fit all the five critical questions into the paper without going over the word count. The first question I included by letting the reader know what the independent and dependent variable were without straight out stating it. I included the second question by letting the reader know where the original study selected their participants from. The third question was included by stating how the researchers assigned the participants to different groups. For the fourth question, I included in my article, the casual claims that were made in the study. For the last question, I did try to aim my writing to the general public, by keeping the wording simple for people who do not know much about psychology, to understand.

My summary of the study and the news article are very similar, but also have a few differences. Both articles include the basics, where the study was done and what it was about. As well as including the number of participants involved and the results from the study. The news article, unlike my summary, includes a lot of quotes from psychologists and organizations, that I feel, are just extra information that is not vital to the study. The pop culture article also did not include the main points of what the researchers wanted to find by conducted the study. My summary included all four points the researchers wanted to answer by the study.

By experiencing these different projects, it has largely opened my eyes to the scientific side of the journalism world. By doing the first assignment, the pop culture article critique, it made me realize that maybe every article is not as scholarly as you might think. The pop culture article left out some major details about the study, but included quotes from psychologists, that the article could do without. The scholarly article critique made me realize how much work, information, and detail go into a scholarly article. Lastly, the Pop media project helped me put myself in other writers’ shoes and realize how hard it is to pick out details from a very large amount of information that is in front of you.

Chapter 8: First Impression

--Original published at HannahsCollegeBlog

This year my studying habits are not as great as I would like them to be.  One major factor that I need to improve on is time management. When I know an exam is approaching I will usually wait until the day before to start my studying. This is not an effective method for studying, because, the brain won’t be able to retain all of the information trying to be cram crammed into it. To better my studying, I will look over my notes and reread chapters from the book every night, this way the information will be familiar. Aside from the time management aspect, there is the style of studying. The method of studying I use varies around the allotted time I have during that day. When I have a lot of time I read through the chapters out of the book, after, I then go back through the book and make flashcards of all of the vocabulary terms; from there, I usually study the flashcards until I fall asleep.

For this past exam, I procrastinated until the day before to do the majority of my studying. I took my book and notes and read through both chapters twice to ensure that I had an understanding of the material. After reading through chapters one and three, and taking many breaks throughout, I took out flashcards and wrote down all of the the vocab words and definitions that I was unsure of.  Once I finished with the flashcards I took a long break with psychology to study for bio, then later that night I started again with the flashcards until it got late and I had to sleep. To improve my grade on the next test I will increase the amount of days I study for the test, and decrease the amount of breaks I take while studying.

First Impression- Research Study

--Original published at HannahsCollegeBlog

There are many different and interesting topics in psychology. I know that sleep plays a major factor in how well your brain functions. Sleep is very important for the well being of your mind and body. The topic that I will be using to conduct my research study is sleep. My question is, does a lack of sleep have a negative affect on your mood and alertness? My hypothesis is, a lack of sleep causes a decline in the over-all mood and alertness of a person. I believe this due to the fact that when your brain doesn’t get the rest it needs, it won’t be able to function at to its full potential, causing your mood and your alertness to suffer. To start my procedure, I will need one single group of participants. To recruit my participants, I will ask fellow students in my classes and around campus until I get 20 volunteers. Once I get all of my participants I will have them sleeping eight to ten hours every night for one week straight, this will be the control group. After that one week of all of the participants getting a sufficient night sleep, they will all return back to the lab for testing. I will have other researchers pretend to be random people, and just have all twenty participants ‘socialize’ with my researchers who will have a chart and test and observe their mood, attitude, and responses. Once all of the data is collected, the same group of participants will be told to get only three to four hours of sleep a night for one week, this will be the experimental group. At the conclusion of that week, the participants will return back to the lab, get assigned to their previous researcher, and will ‘socialize’ once more, and further data will be collected. Once all of the data is gathered, I will compare the control group to the experimental group and decide whether my hypothesis is proven or rejected.


About Me

--Original published at HannahsCollegeBlog

Hello, my name is Hannah Segal, and I am a Psychology major. I took this class because psychology is very interesting to me and I want to learn more about it. My senior year of high school I took AP psychology and it ended up being my favorite class. When I hear the word “psychology” I think of how the brain and mind work, and the ‘why’ behind peoples actions. Week 14, covering the topic of mental illnesses sounds most interesting to me because I want to learn about what the different illnesses are and how they effect the brain and what can be done to help fix them. I am also interested in learning about sleep, and why it is easier or harder for others to sleep, and knowing how to get the best sleep. Lastly I am looking forward to learn how to cope with stress. This interest me because stress is a daily problem that most people face, so learning how to cope with it will make everyday life a little easier. One topic that I am least excited to learn about is conditioning. When I was learning this in my AP class, it never peaked my interest and was kind of boring to me. I am also least interested in learning about the theories of intelligence, because I my AP teacher took a lot of time to go over that topic so I already have somewhat of an understanding of it. Lastly, how to choose a therapist, this is least interesting to me because I am looking forward to learning more about the brain itself rather than the therapies. One question that I would like to have answered by the end of this class is, why do we dream?