Media Production Project

--Original published at Madison's Blog


Researchers have continuously noted that smell had a strong impact on attraction to certain objects. A new study done at the University of British Columbia researched the effects of stress levels in women after smelling a partner’s scent, a stranger’s smell, and an unworn smell on a T-shirt. The background on this study focused on theories that a familiar smell is comforting and can reduce stress levels in the body.

96 heterosexual couples volunteered to be in this study. The women were randomly assigned to smell either their partner’s worn shirt, a stranger’s, or an unworn shirt. The men were all assigned to wear the same T-shirt provided by the experimenters for 24 hours, refraining from exercise, smelly foods, or any activity that would skew scent. The women blindly smelled only one shirt from the three groups and completed a series of stress tests. Vitals along with a saliva samples were taken before and after the tasks.

It was hypothesized that stress levels in the women would increase with the stranger’s shirt, decrease with their partner’s shirt and stay constant with the unworn shirt. In correlation to the T-shirt and stressful situation readings, it was seen that in the presence of a familiar scent, cortisol levels decreased, and the opposite was recorded for strange scents. Women exposed to the unworn shirt had no significant change, but slightly reflected the effects of the partner’s scent.

Researchers believe this reflex comes from an evolutionary cycle of “fight or flight.” The reaction of the women was determined by if their bodies thought the scent was familiar of not, so only women who guessed the shirt owner correct were accounted for in data collection. The human body can change its chemistry without our aware knowledge.

(291 words– original article was 307)




In the summary I chose to include how the study question was brought up with what background information was used to formulate a hypothesis. I think this is important to include because olfactory experiments have rarely been done before this experiment, so having some brief background is reassuring to readers. I made sure to include how the couples were randomly assigned to 3 groups, and the women and men had no knowledge of what group they were in. These random groups were crucial to the validity of the research, since the women could have calmed themselves down or reacted more heavily to the stress tests if aware of who’s scent they smelled. I did not include details of all 5 critical questions, because some were irrelevant to the overall understanding of the study for a brief reading. I answered the question of how they selected their participants, since the couples volunteered to be in the study. I also stated how the couples were randomly assigned into 3 groups, which answers the question of how they assigned their participants to groups. I did not fully discuss causal claims since a reader will not fully understand the correlation between stress levels at different periods of the study in quick reading. The conclusions were generalized to the public, but I did not include that in the summary since I think to a reader that is assumed to be the fact.

In the summary, I tried to answer more of the 5 critical questions than the article itself originally did. I thought including how the participants were selected and assigned was information that was beneficial for the reader.  Also, I included more information about how the women were used to smell the shirt. In the original article, it only states that the women would smell a T-shirt that was either their partner’s, a stranger’s, or unworn, but they left out the fact that the women only smell one shirt over the course of the experiment. They in total would only smell one shirt from one of those categories and keep smelling it at various times throughout the study. I think it is important for the reader to know that the conclusions are drawn by the women having only been affected by one type of olfactory reaction. In comparison, I think both the article and the summary give a brief overview of the main points of the journal article, but there are obvious detail-oriented differences between them.

Overall from going through each of the three assignments in this semester, I have learned a lot about how psychology is written about in the media. In the pop culture article critique, it was hard to set apart what was good information, and what could be added to have a better understanding of the research, since the research was not seen yet. The 5 critical questions were not easily answered, and it was hard to follow at times since it was written so vaguely. After reading the journal article, I saw there were major chunks of information left out of the brief pop culture article. I tried to change that in my summary, but it was difficult to fit important details in the space provided. I give psychology writers recognition for being able to write thoughtful articles without leaving out information. In the article summary I wrote, I tried to encompass each aspect I thought was important from each assignment and tie it together.

Link to Article:

Link to Journal Article:

Spotlight Post #3

--Original published at Madison's Blog

Peer pressure is a situation all people go through sometime in their lives. It can come in many different forms, and in certain situations can be very hard to overcome. Tips to avoid peer pressure can vary between different groupings of people. High school students have different coping strategies than an adult parent would, and similarly an athlete may also have differing techniques. In all, these peer pressure coping strategies aid in avoiding the pressures placed upon them by their equals.

High school students are faced with peer pressure in their everyday lives. It can come from their friends, or just from social media and society’s set norms. Teens are advised to deal with peer pressure in a variety of ways, like making friends with a group of friends who are school-work focused and keep out of trouble regularly. Your friends influencing you in a good way is positive peer pressure, which is a good thing. It can help create new norms in a group and distract from unpleasant situations where negative peer pressure is an issue.In a negative peer pressure situation, a high school teen is advised to listen to their gut, and if a decision is being made that does not sit well with them, do not follow along. Standing up for what they believe is very important to their mental health. Also, teens could learn to feel comfortable saying “no” to their peers, and this can make peer pressure lessen. Teens could also blame their parents in certain situations. When a invitation or unwanted occurrence comes up, the teen could simply say, “Are you kidding? If my mom found out, she’d kill me, and her spies are everywhere.” This could be helpful, since the peer will not have any way to persuade you, since the parent was brought up. These can be great ways to combat peer pressure in normal life for any teen.

To me some of these tips could work well, while others may not. I think the blame your parents one is genius. I have personally used this method countless times, and every time it has worked. A peer will not know your parent actually had no say in the matter, since they cannot contact them, and usually after a day the situation is blown over. On the other hand, I do not think the method of just saying no could help a lot. In some situations, saying no can help a little, but peers can continue to pressure. When continuously hounded, it can be very hard to keep the answer no. In most cases, giving in is easier than standing your ground.

For adults, peer pressure is handled differently. In a way, adults can look at their lives and peers as a game of bowling. The bumper guards are peers, they guide your life in the right direction based on values. Pressure from others may cause adults to feel like they have to keep up with the ‘Jones,’ and are pressured into a lifestyle that isn’t theirs.

Ways for adults to combat peer pressure is to know themselves. The best way to make the right decision is to take time to reflect on the past and trust feelings. If unsure, take more time to relax and think carefully. Ask questions internally to focus thoughts, like  “Is this new job one that would be fulfilling to me, or am I taking it because I think my parents/spouse would want me to?” “Can I make a daily choice to invest in my health, my wealth, or my well being?” These types of questions can help keep the mind true to self, and fight unnoticed peer pressure. Also, be assertive at times. Either by parenting styles or by just saying no firmly. An adult could also make sure to validate themselves when a decision has been made. Validating self beliefs can create a sense of calmness which is good for health.

I think these methods seem very easy to do for any adult. I especially like the method of asking internal questions to reflect on life and how the body is feeling about it. I think relaxation is very important, and using that paired with steady thought can be really helpful in being confident enough to say no. Personally, I think again that just saying no can be a bit harmful, since peers can be persuasive in their way of thinking. I would pair the no with a strong reason and then take yourself out of the situation. That would be a better way of fighting the urge to follow.

In athletes, peer pressure comes from many different places, since there are peers from teammates and opposing team players. Also, society paints a picture for men and women that if one is an athlete, it means being skinny and muscular. These expectations that flood the minds of youth can create destructive patterns of behavior. They are expected to keep up with their academic work, and maintain a healthy social life.

Ways an athlete can fight peer pressure is by, keeping friends who are not athletes around you, so sport pressure won’t always be following. Pressure can be at bay when not in the athletic field. Also, athletes can confide in their captains and coaches about pressures placed upon them in wrongful manors. Telling someone about sport related pressures can help rationalize them in the mind, and sort them into good and bad ideas. Be aware of surrounding peers, and do not get caught up in the wrong crowd when sport events are being held. Peers can be persuasive in many different forms, and even when the game is going on, still be aware of potential peer pressures and how to best combat them. Parties to celebrate victories can lead to alcohol and drug consumption, which is  bad idea for athletes. A way to fight this is to celebrate a win by rewarding yourself mentally or with a favorite activity outside of sports. Distance from sports peers can help relax the pressure placed by them in day to day life.

To me, I think the advise to talk to friends who are not athletes can help fight peer pressure, but those peers can also place new pressures on the individual. I think pressure is everywhere, and can be placed by anyone, but relying on a group of friends to deal with other peers seems risky. Two negatives don’t always ,make a positive. I do like the idea of rewarding yourself after a win with something that doesn’t involve sports activities. An ice cream sundae or watching TV for an hour can help reduce peer pressure but also still give a reward for a good game.

Spotlight Post #2

--Original published at Madison's Blog

Stress can come about in many different forms for different groups of people. Student stress varies from athlete stress, which is different than a parent’s stress. All of these groups of people can have different ways to reduce their feelings of stress. Not all methods work properly, which can be harmful to the individual since they can actually cause more stress.

Stress Management For Students:

Students seem to deal with the most amount of stress in their daily lives. Students in  higher level education tend to have the highest levels of stress, which can lead to emotional health problems if not resolved. Students can experience three main types of stress, which are daily life hassles, social, and academic. Methods commonly used to reduce stress are, time management skills, exercise, staying positive, organization, stopping procrastination, and spending time with friends. Some of these methods seem more beneficial than others in helping reduce stress. The suggestion to not procrastinate seems like a natural thought for a student. I do not think it is a effective method to reduce stress, since most of the time procrastination is intentional. The student knows he/she is doing it. I feel a better method in place of this is to prioritize assignments, so you cannot push off large assignments that are due.

On the flip side, I think that time management is key to college life. You need to be able to do all your work efficiently, so it can all get done on time. I also think that exercise is a great way to reduce stress. It allows good hormones to be released into the body, which in turn relaxes the body and mind. Organization can also be make or break for a student. I think being organized helps reduce stress for the simple reason that you do not have to think about what is next. Making a check list for the week of assignments to get done can help ease the mind. You have everything written down, so there is no need to think about what to do next, since it is there for you. Overall, I think some methods can be more beneficial to students than others.


Stress Management For Athletes:

Athletes have a lot on their plates when it comes to dealing with stress. They have to be able to combat life stress, school stress, and also their competitive training stress. Stress is very pivotal in an athletes life, since it can make or break them. A small amount of stress has been shown to enhance an athletes abilities, but too much is harmful. Balancing the daily life struggles of stress from different areas can cause damage to an athlete. Our bodies cannot tell the difference between life stress, school stress, and athletic stress, so too much has a direct effect on immune system and hormonal balance. Methods to help athletes stress less is to not train too hard too fast. Training should be an act of progression, to enable the body to repair itself. Many athletes train everyday, all day, and they think it is helping them get stronger. Actually is is hurting their bodies, and this causes stress. Progressively training can help lower that type of stress. Another method to reduce stress is to do yoga instead of a vigorous exercise class. Yoga can provide physical and mental benefits for all athletes. It also increases core strength, concentration, flexibility, and lung function.

I think that yoga is a great way to reduce stress in any situation. Athletes can benefit from it, since it gives such great health bonuses. It can help with all types of stress related to athletes, so it can really help them. Yoga can ease the mind and body to help repair itself after a long day of exercise. I think that the method of training less aggressively can help the athlete see that training is not everything in a sport. A healthy mind also matters in life and in the game.


Stress Management For Parents:

Parents tend to deal with stress in different ways than other groups of people. They have to hide it more, since they are the role models to their growing family. Parents destress more often, since they encounter more stressors during their days. Types of stress they encounter are, family stress, work stress, financial stress, and more. Methods for parents to reduce stress vary, since the stress also varies on a wide range. Typically, parents will use breathing exercises, wake up earlier to have alone time in the morning, write things down so you do not rely on memory, plan ahead of time, leave time for unexpected events, and be optimistic. These are just a few of the hundreds of ways parents can lower their stress levels. I think that parents have the most options to reduce stress. The options are endless, since they can use different smaller ways to destress more. I think that for parents, stress can hit harder, since their lives cannot stop for them.

I feel the methods can work well, since they do not require a lot of time. Small things can make a big difference in a life. I think the option to write things down can be tedious to a parent, since their might not be a list readily available. Maybe typing things in the notes feature of a cell phone would be more practical and handy. I like the idea of waking up earlier than the rest of the family to have alone time. Even a small amount of quiet time can be very beneficial to the mind, and it can help reduce stress levels. The parents can plan the day and have peace all in one time slot. I think that is a great idea for anyone who needs some alone time.

Overall, I think that stress can effect anyone, but in different ways. Students face stress in a different way than athletes and parents. Different aspects of life adversely affect people of other groups, age, genders, and more. The coping skills discussed can work for any situation, and are not limited to the groups included. All methods of reducing stress can benefit different people facing different situations.




First Impression Week 12

--Original published at Madison's Blog

I originally chose to attend Elizabethtown College because of the small town feel and great academic standards. I felt it was the best fit for me, since I like small town feels and the class sizes were only 13-14. Being a science major, I knew I would need one-on-one time with professors. The college campus had great dorm rooms, which many others I toured did not. The rooms were decently sized and they were close to the academic buildings, which meant I didn’t need to walk far to class. I liked how the students on campus were so friendly and weren’t just sitting around. They were out walking and playing on the Dell when I toured. I just knew it would be a good place for me to be.


I motivate myself to do well in my classes because I know I need a good overall GPA to get accepted into Dental school later on. The acceptance rates at schools are very competitive, so I motivate myself by thinking about my future plans and goals. I also motivate myself because I enjoy my classes and the material I learn. That fact of me wanting to go to class helps me retain the material without having to cram in study time for exams.


An intervention for myself to succeed until graduation would be that I need to keep my head up and stay focused. I always think of my future, and how it won’t be an easy ride to get into Dental school. My GPA and study habits are my main focus during my time at Etown. I need to keep my eye on the prize in order to stay motivated to do the hard work. Studying for long time periods, doing homework, watching videos about the topics, and more all make me feel like I’m doing my best for my classes. For now, I think I have motivation for my goals, but if I can remind myself every once and a while that I am putting in such hard work for a reason, I can stay motivated.

Johari Window Bonus Blog Post

--Original published at Madison's Blog

In my Johari Window I created, it asked me to describe myself by choosing 6 words from a list given. At first I was confused because it was hard to just choose six, since I can describe myself in a lot of ways. The list gave some great options to pick from, so narrowing it down was difficult. After I did so, I was impressed with my choices, since I felt they all accurately described me. I chose, adaptable, friendly, helpful, observant, trustworthy and relaxed.

I then emailed the link to my friends from Etown, some friends from home, and also my parents. I thought having a mix of people from different periods of my life would help validate the results. I thought my personality could be described differently by how long the other person has known me for. All the results came back quickly, and they all were very positive and encouraging! I liked how the link brought all the results from each person into one table of personality traits for me.

When I looked back, every word I used to describe myself had been used by someone else to describe me too. So I described myself very well, considering others thought the same thing about me. There were some other words they used to describe me that I would have never chosen for myself, like bold, powerful, and witty. Those seemed outside of the box for me, but that is how others view me, so it cannot be a wrong answer. In the long run, those are’t negative traits to have, so it all was positive feedback.

I think this personality test was valid enough for me to take the results to heart. I liked how the traits offered to choose from were positive, and encouraging. That made it feel more appealing to me and probably made it easier for the others to choose traits, since they knew it would be viewed by me. I think it was valid because it was all electronic too, so I chose my traits and the other people had no contact with me in between choosing theirs. I learned some great things from completing this assignment. I learned that I have a false perception of my personality changing in my transition from high school to college. That is why I asked different people from different periods of my life to all take the test. I figured my personality would have some slight changes, since I was in a new environment and meeting new people. Everyone, my parents, new friends as well as old friends all chose similar if not the same traits to describe me. That showed me that I have always been true to myself even in the transition state. Overall, I liked this exercise and I think it made a statement about how my friends and family view me compared to how I view myself.

Week 9 First Impression #2 Emotion

--Original published at Madison's Blog

I chose to do option number 2 this week, about taking the facial expressions test to see how well I can read non-verbal cues. I scored a 15/20 on the quiz, which is in the field of where I expected it to be. I knew I wouldn’t get a perfect score, since I don’t know all facial cues down to a science. I thought the quiz would have been easier, since I expected just a few emotions, like happy, sad, angry, fearful. In reality, the emotions were very broad and ranged from angry to love, embarrassment, flirty, and politeness. It made knowing what exact facial expression was being showed very difficult. The multiple choice answers made it difficult as the quiz went on, because the face could be showing “politeness” but the choices of answers are between “happy, politeness, fear, and embarrassment.” The quick response would be to say the face is happy, since it isn’t fearful or embarrassed, but the correct answer is politeness because of a slight shift in eyebrow movement or mouth muscle tightness. Usually I am pretty good at reading people’s facial cues, but this quiz made me really think and examine different aspects of the facial expression.

The quiz seemed to be credible, since it is sponsored by the University of California, Berkeley. The quiz had multiple participants who made faces for the quiz, so it had an aspect of variability. You couldn’t use the process of elimination method, since the faces were slightly different for multiple people. The quiz gave options for the answer, so it allowed the quiz taker to think slightly before submitting the answer. After submitting the chosen answer, the correct answer came up, along with an explanation of why that answer was correct based on facial muscles and expressions. So having the answer be backed up with data and an explanation made it more credible.

The easiest emotions to tell apart were the “fear, disgust, anger” emotions, since they are usually easily shown in a facial expression. The challenge was between the “positive” emotions like, “happy, content, polite, pride, and excitement.” These made you think extra because the difference was only a very slight muscle movement in some aspect of the face. I had trouble differentiating them in different people’s faces. I could use this new found knowledge in my daily life by understanding the slight differences between cues. I now know about the eyebrow movements and smile changes between happy emotions. I think I knew the angry emotions well before this, but I now have more of a solid foundation  of them and the differences. This exercise helped me distinguish between the emotions, and gave me information about each emotion individually.

First Impression Week 9

--Original published at Madison's Blog

College students often have to sacrifice well needed sleep in order to maintain a social life, get homework done, study, eat, and exercise daily. All these activities cuts into the nighttime, when sleep should be the main priority. For me, I need to sleep at least seven hours a night in order to be fully functional the next day. I have 8am classes four days a week, so the early mornings highly influence my nightly routine. I make sure to be in bed, or getting ready for bed by 11:15pm. If I push my limits and stay up past midnight, I will be too tired the next day to be awake and tentative in class. I am not a huge nap-taker, so my sleep at night is my main rest time. I know other students who are awake all night, and maybe only receive five hours at night or less. I personally cannot do that, my body will not run on that little of sleep for very long. I try to offset my nightly studying by doing as much homework during the day as possible. This allows me to get all my needed work done, but also not delay my sleep schedule. I can improve my sleep habits a little bit by making sure the room is completely dark when I try to sleep, since darkness is easier to sleep in. My roommate stays up later than I do, so I am used to falling asleep in a fully lit room. The lights make it harder to relax and calm down enough to fully fall asleep, so that is something I can work on. I think for a college student, sleep is key to success. Nobody can succeed while being sleep deprived, since it weakens your immune system. Sleep is essential to life, and for a busy college student, I think the more sleep the better. I set a strict sleep schedule for myself, and I function well during the day. For others, I think setting a strict sleep schedule for yourself is a goal to keep. Even if you need to stay up late to do work, if you get your body into a routine, the transition from work to sleep will be easier.

Spring Break First Impression

--Original published at Madison's Blog

In the TED Talk entitled “Different Ways of Knowing,”  Daniel Tammet tries to explain and explore his experiences dealing with Synesthesia. His condition allows his senses to cross over, and activate each other in unusual ways. He can associate words with colors and emotion, or he sees numbers as each having their own color and symbol. He sees the number 6 as a tiny and sad black hole, and 1 as a bright flash of light. He also sees numbers as different colors, for example the number 4 is blue and the number 5 is yellow. He perceives the world very differently than normal people do, his thought process is skewed. To normal people, this condition would seem to cripple us. To others, the condition of Synesthesia seems to be an advantage, since Daniel talked about being able to envision mathematical situations in a logical way, and solve problems easier. To break down a difficult math multiplication problem, he envisioned a chess board being 64 squares, and 75 squares being 3/4 of 100 and creating a mental picture. To us, this seems complicated and misleading, but to him it easily solved the problem. Although, people could take either side, saying it could pose some “superpowers” or create internal chaos. The fact of having more than one sense associated with a word, number, or everyday thought seems to fascinate people. I don’t think I could imagine having the fleeting glances of light and colors while simply trying to read a book. It would frustrate me to not have control over the associations my senses were making, since they could influence you. In the TED Talk though, Daniel didn’t seem to be phased by his condition, since he has always had it. He acknowledges his difference, and is striving to explain his perceptions to the general public. I think the concept of “seeing sounds and hearing colors” is interesting, but I personally don’t think it would benefit me.

First Impression Week 7

--Original published at Madison's Blog

Addiction is a real problem in our country at the moment, and I feel like more should be done to help those in need. There are two main pathways you can take to help a loved one who is struggling with an addiction, the abstinence method and the harm reduction method. Both can work in many cases, but they are very different. The abstinence method is to quit the habit or addiction for good, in order to better the individual’s life.   In the abstinence method, the science behind addiction is studied and used as a way to treat the illness. It has been scientifically shown that addiction is somewhat genetic, and people can be predisposed to having an addiction prone body.  Over 50% of a person’s predisposition to addiction is genetically linked. The person struggling with addition and using an abstinence method of treatment must retrain their altered brain to think it is powerless to the alcohol and drugs, and therefore cannot use them again. In the harm reduction method, quitting the addiction is not the goal in mind. What the method entails is educating the individual about the risks associated with the behavior. Also, it provides services like, drug replacement therapy, needle exchange programs, designated drivers in certain situations, substituting for “less harmful drugs”, and testing commonly used drugs for harmful additives. These services aren’t aimed to stop addiction from occurring, but it helps reduce the risks involved. It can potentially save lives by providing education and safety measures to those who need it. This method can be used as a stepping stone to abstinence, since sometimes it can be hard to stop an addiction at one time. If a loved one needed help with an addiction, I would recommend the abstinence method. This would be the more reliable method, since it stops the behavior instead of just curbing the risks. I think it is more beneficial to completely stop the behavior in order to be happy and healthy in the future.

Spotlight Post 1

--Original published at Madison's Blog

Learning styles have become more frequently discussed in recent years, due to the increasing number of teachers catering their classrooms towards the student-based learning approach. Students can be tested and receive a preferred “learning style” that best fulfills their needs as a student. A teacher’s awareness of different learning styles can help students’ intake new information in a way that best allows them to remember it. Instructors can approach learning material in various ways, to allow students to assess information in a way that best fits them. Commonly known learning styles include visual, auditory, verbal, and kinesthetic. Educators can help students explore solutions to various problems through group contribution of a differing learning style. It can benefit the teacher, and the student to be able to interpret information using different techniques of learning. This source is credible because it is a peer reviewed journal entry and is published in the International Journal of Childbirth Education. The author, Carol Brady also cited other notable works within her entry to further solidify the credibility.

Schools could also explore the use of mobile devices in the classroom environment to support individual learning styles as well as collaborative learning. The major difference between mobile learning styles and the traditional classroom lecture form of learning is that the mobile learning is student-centered and more individualized, as opposed to the classroom lecture form, which is usually teacher mediated. If a student could use technology to self-teach some aspects of the curriculum, it could better suit their individualized learning style. That means the information taught will be better understood in the long run and benefit the child more. This source is well credited because it is published in an academic journal and peer reviewed. The authors are credited in their field of work, and therefore the source is verified.

Though student-based learning styles have been credited in recent years, some people are criticizing its effectiveness. Since teachers will be attempting to manage all their students’ activities at once, it can be difficult when the students are working on different stages of the same projects. The teacher will have to juggle each child’s individual needs all at once, even when it gets overwhelming. This could distract from the goal of the project at hand, and no substantial learning could be achieved. The teachers also don’t always deliver instruction to all students at once, since some will be at different stages of their learning. This could cause some confusion, since some students may miss important facts that were only stated once. This source is credible because it is based out of research done by Concordia University in Oregon. The source has been updated frequently as new information is released in the field. This validates the claim of if the article is a legitimate source.

In a report published by Department for Education and Skill, 66% of 347 UK schools surveyed said they teach according to the students’ preferred learning styles. Two major difficulties in the use of learning styles is that giving a child a label, as a specific type of learner may limit their self-identity and deter the use of available tools for other various learning styles. Obtaining the measurements of students’ learning styles and gaining knowledge about how best to teach each accordingly, are costly and time-consuming for the school. The school would have to train each teacher on how to best suit each learning type for optimal performance. This takes time to perfect, and timing is key in the educational system. This article was written by multiple students and faculty at the Centre for Educational Neuroscience at the University College London. This source is credible because other outside sources were used to construct a thoughtful argument using factual data collected.

After reading these sources, I feel very strongly about this issue. I believe learning styles should be incorporated more in schools, since students seem to benefit from it. Though it costs money, and teachers will have to go out of their way to cater to the different students, that is the sacrifice needed. The students are the main focus in schools, and their learning of new material is the goal of the institution. If they learn and remember the information better using a specific learning style, than I think it should be utilized.


Brady, Carol L. “Understanding Learning Styles: Providing the Optimal Learning Experience.” International Journal of Childbirth Education, vol. 28, no. 2, Apr. 2013, pp. 16-19. EBSCOhost,

Fakomogbon, Michael Ayodele1 and Hameed Olalekan2 Bolaji. “Effects of Collaborative Learning Styles on Performance of Students in a Ubiquitous Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment.” Contemporary Educational Technology, vol. 8, no. 3, July 2017, pp. 268-279. EBSCOhost,